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After his first speech in the Landtag, Bismarck gained scandalous popularity.

After his first speech in the Landtag, Bismarck gained scandalous popularity.

Although the words spoke of the "flourishing" of Soviet democracy, in reality there was a total centralization of administrative management in all areas of life – from the economy to the spiritual sphere. The institutions of democracy acquired a purely formal significance.

The latter is confirmed by the example of the USSR Constitution of 1936. Although all citizens of the country, regardless of social origin and status, received all political rights under the Constitution, including the right to vote and be elected, in fact their constitutional norms were nominal, and in many cases – purely illusory nature. Along with the declaration of constitutionality, there was a de facto destruction of real political activity and political initiative of the masses. Formal democratization of elections turned in practice into the elimination of the very possibility of choice.

All this had a detrimental effect on the socio-political development of Soviet society, for many years separated the country from the achievements of world civilization. This is the bitter truth of the history of the 20-30s.

literature

Recent history of foreign countries: Europe and America, 1917-1939: Textbook. allowance. – M .: Enlightenment, 1975. The latest history of foreign countries: Europe and America, 1917-1945: Textbook / Ed. VK Furaeva. – Moscow: Enlightenment, 1989. History of the United States. – Moscow: Nauka, 1983. – Vol. 3. History of fascism in Western Europe. – Moscow, 1978. Political history of the XX century. – Kyiv: ISDO, 1995. Chernyak EB Monopolistic capitalism of the first half of the twentieth century. in historical retrospect // New and modern history. – 1990. – â„– 2. – P. 20-36. Krivoguz IM The fate and legacy of the Comintern // New and modern history. – 1990. – â„– 6. – P. 3-20 Shutov AD Communists and social democrats: history and modernity // New and modern history. – 1990. – No. 2. – P. 3-19. Pages of the history of Soviet society. Facts, problems, people. – M.: Politizdat, 1989. – P. 88-253 Danilov VP, Dmitrenko VP, Lelchuk VS NEP and its fate: Historians argue. – M .: Politizdat, 1989. – P. 122-191. Volkogonov DA Stalinism: essence, genesis, evolution // Questions of history. – 1990. – No. 3. – P. 3-17. The famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine: Through the eyes of historians, in the language of documents. – Kyiv: Politvydav Ukrainy, 1990. Kulchytsky S., Maksudov S. Losses of the population of Ukraine from the famine of 1933 // Ukr. ist. magazine. – 1991. – No. 2. – P. 3-10. Medvedev RA About Stalin and Stalinism. – M.: Progress, 1990.

09/26/2012

"Iron Chancellor" Bismarck, Otto von Bismarck. Abstract

Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck-Schönhausen (1815-1898) was a prince, German statesman, and first chancellor of the German Empire (Second Reich), nicknamed the "Iron Chancellor". He had the honorary rank (peacetime) of a Prussian colonel-general in the rank of field marshal-general (March 20, 1890).

Origin

Otto Von Bismarck was born on April 1, 1815, into a family of petty nobles in Schönhausen, in the province of Brandenburg (now Saxony-Anhalt). All generations of the Bismarck family served the rulers of Brandenburg in peace and war, but did not show anything special. Simply put, the Bismarcks were cadets, descendants of the conquering knights who founded settlements on the lands east of the Elbe. Bismarck could not boast of extensive landholdings, wealth or aristocratic luxury, but were considered noble.

Young years

From 1822 to 1827, Otto studied at the Plaman School, which placed special emphasis on physical development. But young Otto was not satisfied with this, as he often wrote to his parents. At the age of twelve, Otto left the school of Plaman, but did not leave Berlin, continuing his studies at the Gymnasium named after Frederick the Great on Friedrichstrasse, and when he turned fifteen, he moved to the gymnasium "At the Gray Monastery" … Otto proved to be an average, not outstanding student. But he studied French and German well, enjoying reading foreign literature. The main interests of the young man lay in the field of politics of past years, the history of military and peaceful rivalry between different countries. At that time, the boy, unlike his mother, was far from religion.

After graduating from high school, her mother assigned Otto to George Augustus University in Göttingen, which was in the kingdom of Hanover. It was assumed that there the young Bismarck would study law and, later, enter the diplomatic service. However, Bismarck was not set up for serious training and preferred to have fun with friends, many of whom appeared in Göttingen. Otto often took part in duels, in one of which he was wounded for the first and only time in his life, from a wound on his cheek he had a scar. In general, Otto von Bismarck at that time was little different from the "golden" German youth.

Bismarck did not complete his education in Göttingen, life on a large scale proved burdensome for his pocket, and, under threat of arrest by university authorities, he left the city. For a whole year he was enrolled in the New Metropolitan University of Berlin, where he defended his dissertation on philosophy and political economy. This was the end of his university education.

Naturally, Bismarck immediately decided to start a career in diplomacy, which his mother had high hopes for. But the literacy narrative ideas then Prussian foreign minister refused the young Bismarck, advising him to "look for a place in some administrative institution inside Germany, and not in the sphere of European diplomacy." It is possible that the minister’s decision was influenced by rumors about Otto’s turbulent student life and his passion for clarifying the relationship through a duel.

Work

Bismarck, 1836. As a result, Bismarck went to work in Aachen, which recently became part of Prussia. The influence of France was still felt in this resort town, and Bismarck mainly dealt with the problems associated with the accession of this border area to the customs union, which was dominated by Prussia. But the work, according to Bismarck himself, "was easy" and he had plenty of time to read and enjoy life. During the same period he had many love affairs with visitors to the resort. One day he did not even marry the daughter of the English parish priest Isabella Lorraine-Smith.

Having fallen into disfavor in Aachen, Bismarck was forced to enlist in the army, in the spring of 1838 he enlisted in the Guards Battalion of Hunters. However, his mother’s illness shortened his life: many years of caring for children and property undermined her health. His mother’s death put an end to Bismarck’s pursuit of the cause, and it became clear that he would have to manage his Pomeranian estates.

Settling in Pomerania, Otto von Bismarck began to think about ways to increase the profitability of his estates, and soon won the respect of his neighbors, both theoretical knowledge and practical success. Life on the estate greatly disciplined Bismarck, especially when compared to his student years. He proved to be an intelligent and practical landowner. But still student habits made themselves felt and soon the surrounding cadets nicknamed him "crazy."

Bismarck became very close to his younger sister Malvina, who graduated from Berlin. A spiritual intimacy arose between the brother and the sister, caused by the similarity in tastes and sympathies. Otto introduced Malvina to his friend Arnim, and a year later they married.

Bismarck never again ceased to consider himself a believer in God and a follower of Martin Luther. Each morning he began by reading passages from the Bible. Otto decided to enter into an agreement with Johanna von Puttkammer, which he achieved without much difficulty.

Political career

Around the same time, Bismarck for the first time had the opportunity to enter politics as a member of the newly formed United Landtag of the Kingdom of Prussia. He decided not to lose this chance and on May 11, 1847, took his seat, postponing his own wedding for a while.

It was a time of the sharpest confrontation between liberals and conservative pro-royal forces: the liberals demanded from Frederick William IV a Constitution and great civil liberties, but the king was in no hurry to grant them; he needed money to build a railway from Berlin to East Prussia. It was for this purpose that he convened the United Landtag in April 1847, consisting of eight provincial Landtags.

After his first speech in the Landtag, Bismarck gained scandalous popularity. In his speech, he tried to refute the statement of the Liberal MP about the constitutional nature of the war for liberation in 1813. As a result, thanks to the press, the "mad" cadet from Kniphof became a "mad" deputy of the Berlin Landtag. A month later, Otto earned the nickname "Persecutor of Finland" because of his constant attacks on the idol and mouthpiece of the liberals Georg von Finzi.

Revolutionary sentiments gradually matured in the country; especially among the urban lower classes, dissatisfied with rising food prices. Under these circumstances, Otto von Bismarck and Johanna Puttkammer finally married.

1848 brought a whole wave of revolutions in France, Italy, and Austria. In Prussia, the revolution also broke out under pressure from patriotic liberals, who demanded the unification of Germany and the creation of a Constitution. The king was forced to accept the demands. Bismarck was initially afraid of revolution and was even going to help lead the army to Berlin, but soon his passion cooled, and there was only sadness and disappointment in the monarch, who made concessions.

Due to his reputation as an incorrigible conservative, Bismarck had no chance of entering the new Prussian National Assembly, elected by universal suffrage. Otto feared for the traditional rights of the cadets, but soon calmed down and admitted that the revolution was less radical than it seemed. He had no choice but to return to his estates and write for the new conservative newspaper Kreuzzeitung. At this time, there is a gradual strengthening of the so-called "camarilla" of the bloc of conservative politicians, which included Otto von Bismarck.

The logical result of the strengthening of the Camarilla was the counter-revolutionary coup of 1848, when the king interrupted the session of parliament and sent troops to Berlin.

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