Masaryk, and the government of the “national coalition” was headed by K.
Masaryk, and the government of the “national coalition” was headed by K.
The February Revolution in Russia contributed to the further intensification of national-liberal circles of Czech and Slovak emigration. At the beginning of May 1917, a congress of the Union of Czechoslovak Societies took place in Kyiv, which recognized the Czechoslovak National Council as the governing body of the Czechoslovak movement and established its Russian branch. Thus, the “Czech question” entered the international arena, which indicated the doubt of its continued membership in Austria-Hungary.
In the autumn of 1917, after the October coup in Russia, the slogans, forms and methods of the Czech national forces became radicalized. Henceforth, the main trend of the Czech liberation movement was the struggle for the creation of a Czech sovereign state under the auspices of the Entente.
The Czechoslovak National Council launched the formation of military legions in Russia, France, and Italy. In the summer of 1917 there were 40,000 soldiers in the Czechoslovak legions, and in mid-1918 there were 128,000 (92,000 in Russia).
Anticipating the imminent collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy, several Czech political parties in February 1918 merged into the State Law Party, led by K. Kramarž.
In July 1918, the Prague National Committee was reorganized, which included representatives of all (except the Social Democrats) Czech political parties. The renewed committee was to become first of all a factor of “maintaining order” and only then a body of the future state power. In June 1918
France has officially recognized the Czechoslovak National Council as the cornerstone of the future Czechoslovak government.
A nationwide strike on October 14, 1918, in the Czech lands to prevent the export of food by the Austrian authorities was a convincing demonstration of the activity of the labor movement and national forces. This action was organized on the initiative of the “Land Economic Council” and the “Socialist Circle” (unification of all parties of socialist orientation). During the strike, demands were made for national independence and the formation of a “free Czechoslovak Republic.”
On October 28, 1918, the day the Austro-Hungarian government announced its intention to conclude an armistice with the Entente, the Prague National Committee took over the civil and military administration and declared an independent state.
On November 14, 1918, the Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed at a solemn session of the Provisional National Assembly in Prague. T. Masaryk was elected its first president, and the government of the “national coalition” was headed by K. Kramarzh.
Austria-Hungary: integration processes and national specifics. Moscow, 1997. Austro-Hungary. The experience of a multinational state. Moscow, 1995. Korovitsina NV The agony of social modernization. Moscow, 1993. A brief history of Czechoslovakia: From ancient times to the present day. Moscow, 1998. Nenasheva ZS Ideological and political struggle in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in the early twentieth century. Czechs, Slovaks and Neo-Slavism, 1848-1914 Moscow, 1984. Nenasheva ZS Socio-political thought in the Czech lands in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Moscow, 1999. Nation formation in Central and South-Eastern Europe. Historical and historical-cultural aspects. Moscow, 1981. The Czech nation at the final stage of formation. 1850 – early 70’s. XIX century Moscow, 1989.
“Crystal Night” in Germany in 1936. Abstract
Back in the 1920s, the Nazis made the cornerstone of their policy in their party program “the solution of the Jewish question.”
The secret of a fatal night
XX century – the century of fears and tragedies. It is permeated by them. Centuries of the bloodiest wars, declared and undeclared. It was the twentieth century that gave rise to terrible words-symbols that conceal incomprehensible suffering, innumerable human sacrifices. Red terror, famine, Crystal Night, Holocaust … The list is endless. And each such word-symbol is the center of the pole of inhumanity. And they are all bleeding wounds in our memory.
Back in the 1920s, the Nazis made the cornerstone of their policy a “solution to the Jewish question” in their party program. Then, while still theorizing, Adolf Hitler in “Mein Kampf” had no doubt, with one stroke of the pen divided humanity into three categories: the creators of civilization, the bearers of civilization and the last, the lowest, the destroyers of civilization. He included, first of all, Jews in this lowest category. And as soon as the Nazis came to power, anti-Semitism, of course, became one of the main components of public policy.
In fairness, the world community, even its intellectual elite, was not at first alarmed at first. It so happened that anti-Semitism was taken for granted. Moreover, Adolf Hitler himself, becoming Chancellor of Germany, at first slightly curbed his impatient pogrom comrades. Despite the fact that he was not going to abandon the consistent and methodical policy of state anti-Semitism. In extreme forms. But he did not yet dare to begin the program of “the final solution of the Jewish question.” I waited. And not only passively waited, but also prepared. After all, for this, at least, it was necessary to solve the two most difficult problems.
First, to find approaches to the neutralization of world public opinion. To make the world humble, to get used to Nazi state anti-Semitism. After all, at first – purely opportunistic – he, despite his outrage, was not indifferent to him. It is no coincidence that when he came to power, he severely put an end to spontaneous Jewish pogroms. Not only for the sake of respectability in the world – hopes for this were weak. I just did not want to hope for the element with its ebbs and flows.
A system was needed. Legislative system. Then any protests could be explained as another conspiracy of world Jewry, interference in internal affairs, encroachment on state sovereignty. And secondly. Probably the most difficult, the most important. It was necessary not only to morally prepare the people of Germany to participate in the implementation of this bloody program, but also to make everyone an accomplice to that massacre. Every German. Bind people together forever. Make the people a collective criminal. And thus consolidate the company.
Not only in the name of the realization of this paranoid plan, but – and this is the main thing – the establishment in the masses of the idea of racial exclusivity, racial superiority. This means the right to world domination. After all, the Jews, in fact, were just the beginning. For them, of course, such a fate would befall other nations.
When they came to power, the Nazis began to develop legislative support for their anti-Semitic policies from the first steps. One by one, laws began to appear that excluded Jews from all walks of life.
But all this was only a prelude. The nationwide “spontaneous explosion” of mass outrage required something extremely impressive, extraordinary. Such that would increase the tension of passions to volcanic eruptions. Then, of course, skillfully manipulating the mass consciousness, everything can be directed in the right direction. And not just to legitimize the “national outrage” but to portray the Jews in the most disgusting way. The offspring of hell. The center of all conceivable and unconceivable vices. In short, the destroyers of civilization.
The moment of truth?
And the fatal moment came. He was then mentioned many years later in 1961, in Jerusalem, at the write my lab report free online trial of “death accountant” Adolf Eichmann. State Prosecutor Gideon Hauser said in his indictment: “At the end of October 1938, the German government decided to evict all Jews who were Polish citizens living in the Reich. The Polish authorities annulled their passports. The Nazis decided to use them and get rid of them. by order of Reinhart Heydrich, then head of the Security Police and the SD, the first mass evictions of Jews took place, they were allowed to take with them only what they could bring, other property was ordered to be left, they were pushed into overcrowded freight cars and taken to the border.
Among these unfortunate exiles was a Jewish shoemaker, Mendel Greenspan, with his wife and children. In desperation, the family sent a postcard to Herschel Greenspan’s son, and the 17-year-old decided he would not remain silent. If the whole world is ready to come to terms with the atrocities committed in broad daylight, then at least he, Herschel Greenspan, will take revenge on his parents and family. On the morning of November 7, he bought a revolver and the same day showed up at the German embassy in Paris. He decided to kill the ambassador, but he was sent to Ernst von Rat’s adviser, who inquired what the young man wanted. The shot rang out twice, and von Rath fell badly wounded. In the Paris police, Herschel Greenspan said: “I decided to kill one of the employees of the German embassy in protest to draw the world’s attention to what is happening in Germany.”
The desperate act of the Jewish young man did not shock the world. He was thrown into a Paris prison. After the capture of Paris, two years later, he fell into the hands of the Germans and was sent to Berlin for interrogation – in the Eichmann section. Since then, his traces have been lost.
Interestingly, that shot did not shock not only the world but also Germany. At least on the day of the assassination. The Reich, which zealously cared not only for its official representatives around the world, but even for its brothers in any country, without leaving without consequences even the slightest encroachment on their rights, this time as if in the mouth of water. Contrary to the generally accepted world diplomatic practice, they did not even consider it necessary to immediately send a note of protest to France in this regard, to make a statement that corresponds to the protocol of international practice.
… November 8 in the building of the former Munich City Hall celebrated the “Day of Old Wrestlers” – another anniversary of the Munich “beer coup”. The entire Nazi leadership of the Reich, led by Adolf Hitler, was present. In the midst of the gala dinner, the Führer was approached by his adjutant and whispered that a message had been received from Paris. Von Rath had just died there from his wounds the day before.
And only now the sensation is gaining popularity. Only now did Hitler, in a trembling voice, announce to his comrades about the terrible Jewish atrocity. Instantly there was a dead silence under the vault of the ancient town hall. Nobody could have imagined such a thing.